Bioactive Affinity Ingredients

What is HMO diversity in precision?

Breastmilk composition is remarkably diverse. According to most breastmilk research reports, there are currently about 20 HMOs can be quantified, meaning that can be detected at a high concentration. Among them, 6 HMOs^^ (2'-FL, DFL, LNnT, LNT, 3'-SL, 6'-SL) have accounted about 50% of these 20 HMOs.

HMO diversity is measured by the abundance, types & the unique structures of HMOs. At different lactating stage, the mother's body will produce different combination of HMOs, and the combination will vary from person to person. A more diverse blend of HMOs is moving closer to the precision of breastmilk composition structure.

HMO Diversity Comparison Chart

Diversity index of 20 types predominant HMOs is 1.68#

# According to 5 studies (Austin 2016, Sprenger 2017, Samuel 2019, Austin 2019, Lefebvre 2020), a total of 20 types of HMO were quantified in samples from after birth >21 days to <12 months. Total quantity is 7.2g/L with a Shannon-Wiener Index of 1.68.
+ 1 HMO refers to formula with 2‘-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL)
2 HMOs refer to formula with 2‘-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL) and
Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 6 HMOs refer to formula with 2’-Fucosyllactose
(2’-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), Difucosyllactose (DFL) , Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3‘-Sialyllactose (3’-SL) and 6’-Sialyllactose (6’-SL).

Bioactive Affinity Ingredients
Clinically proven to support immunity in 3 ways

Support Gut Barrier

A healthy gut barrier helps to block pathogens from entering the body, is the first line of defence in immunity1

Unhealthy gut barrier
Healthy gut barrier
Clinically proven, MOS contributes to a healthy gut barrier2.

Modulate Gut Microbiota

Increasing the beneficial bacteria in the gut microbiota supports gut health3

Formula without 2HMOs/MOS
Formula with 2HMOs/MOS
Pathogens Beneficial bacteria
Clinically proven, 2 HMOs & MOS promote a microbiota similar to breastfed infants.4,5^

Develop Immune Function

The bioactive antibody (slgA) plays a key role in gastrointestinal immune function.6

Formula without MOS
Formula with MOS
Clinically proven, babies taking products containing MOS, the level of the bioactive body (slgA) was found to be doubled In babies’ fecal samples.4^
2 HMOs & MOS help foster immune function.2,7


Clinically proven that babies consuming formula with 2 HMOs* (2’-FL and LNnT) were found to have significantly reduced reporting of the below:

Breastmilk Studies found that:

  • 3’-SL helps support babies’ language development in early childhood8
  • 2’-FL helps support babies’ cognitive development9

Bioactive MOS

Clinically proven that babies consuming formula with MOS had: 2^**

* *2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), Difucosyllactose (DFL), Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3'-Sialyllactose (3'-SL), 6'-Sialyllactose (6'-SL) (6 types of HMO, not from human milk) Reference: 1. Austin S, et al. Nutrients. 2016;8(6):346. 2. Austin S, et al. Nutrients. 2019;11(6):1282. 3. Samuel TM, et al. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):11767. 4. Sprenger N, et al. PloS One. 2017;12(2):e0171814. 5. Lefebvre G, et al. Front Nutr. 2020;7:574459
* 2’-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (types of HMO, not from human milk
** MOS refers to Milk Oligosaccharides
^ Compared with control group
1. Anderson RC et al. Colitis. 2012. DOI: 10.5772/25753.
2. Estorninos E et al. Abstract presented at the FASEB Science Research Conferences Nutritional Immunology and the Microbiota: Rules of Engagement in Health and Disease. 24-29 June 2018, Virginia, USA.
3. O’Neill et al. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. 2017;1:333-349.
4. Estorninos E et al. JPGN. 2019;58(1):999.
5. Steenhout P et al. FASEBJ. 2016;30(Suppl 1):275-277.
6. Bakker-Zierikzee AM et al. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006;17:134-140.
7. Puccio G et al. JPGN. 2017;64(4):624-631.
8. Cho S et al. A positive correlation between breast milk 3’-Sialyllactose and language development during early infancy. 2020. Abstract at the 6th WCPGHAN , June 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark.
9. Berger PK et al. PloS one. 2020;15(2):e0228323.