Bioactive Affinity Ingredients

How to closer to the precision of breastmilk composition structure?

HMO is the third largest component found in breastmilk after lactose and fat. There are more than 200 types of HMOs, out of which, there are 6 predominant HMOs (2'-FL, DFL, LNnT, LNT, 3'-SL, 6'-SL) content levels are at top 131.

According to most breastmilk research reports, there are currently about 20 HMOs can be quantified, meaning that can be detected at a high concentration. Among them, 6 HMOs^^ (2'-FL, DFL, LNnT, LNT, 3'-SL, 6'-SL) have accounted about 50% of these 20 HMOs2-6

A more diverse blend of HMOs is moving closer to the precision of breastmilk composition structure.

What is HMO diversity in precision?

HMO diversity is measured by the abundance, types & the unique structures of HMOs.
At different lactating stage, the mother's body will produce different combination of HMOs, and the combination will vary from person to person.

Diversity index of 20 types predominant HMOs is 1.68#

# According to 5 studies (Austin 2016, Sprenger 2017, Samuel 2019, Austin 2019, Lefebvre 2020), a total of 20 types of HMO were quantified in samples from after birth >21 days to <12 months. Total quantity is 7.2g/L with a Shannon-Wiener Index of 1.68.
+ 1 HMO refers to formula with 2‘-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL)
2 HMOs refer to formula with 2‘-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL) and
Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 6 HMOs refer to formula with 2’-Fucosyllactose
(2’-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), Difucosyllactose (DFL) , Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3‘-Sialyllactose (3’-SL) and 6’-Sialyllactose (6’-SL).

Bioactive Affinity Ingredients
Clinically proven to support immunity in 3 ways

Support Gut Barrier

A healthy gut barrier helps to block pathogens from entering the body, is the first line of defence in immunity1

Unhealthy gut barrier
Healthy gut barrier
Clinically proven,5 HMOs*contributes to a healthy gut barrier8.

Modulate Gut Microbiota

There are countless of "good bacteria" and "bad bacteria" in the gut. HMO is a bioactive nutrient and an important food for "good bacteria". When the "good bacteria" in gut are gradually increased, the "bad bacteria" will be relatively reduced, thereby helping to promote a healthy gut microbiota and reduce the risk of intestinal infection. HMO helps suppress harmful bad bacteria and carry germs away.

Formula without HMO
Formula with different HMOs
Pathogens Beneficial bacteria
Clinically proven, different types of HMO combination include (2'-FL, LNnT, DFL, LNT, 3'-SL, 6'-SL) promote a microbiota closer to breastfed infants.9,10 ^

Develop Immune Function

Lactating secretion contains abundance of bioactive antibody (sIgA), which can defend against pathogens, resist bacterial invasion and plays a key role in immune function.15,16

Formula without HMO or MOS
Formula with HMOs or MOS
Clinically proven, babies consuming formula with HMO (2'-FL, DFL, LNT, 3'-SL, 6'-SL), the bioactive body (slgA) level found in babies’ fecal samples were increased8^, and babies consuming formula with MOS, the bioactive body (slgA) level was found to be doubled11^.
6 HMOs or MOS help foster immune function2,7.


Clinically proven that babies consuming formula with 2 HMOs* (2’-FL and LNnT) were found to have significantly reduced reporting of the below:

Breastmilk Studies found that:

  • 3’-SL helps support babies’ language development in early childhood13
  • 2’-FL helps support babies’ cognitive development14

Bioactive MOS#

Clinically proven that babies consuming formula with MOS had: 11^

* 5HMO refers to 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), Difucosyllactose (DFL), Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3'-Sialyllactose (3'-SL), 6'-Sialyllactose (6'-SL)
* 6HMO refers to 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), Difucosyllactose (DFL), Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3'-Sialyllactose (3'-SL), 6'-Sialyllactose (6'-SL)
* 2HMO refers to 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT)
# MOS refers to Mlik Oligosaccharides
^ Compared with control group
1. Soyyılmaz B et al. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2737.
2. Austin S, et al. Nutrients. 2016;8(6):346.
3. Austin S, et al. Nutrients. 2019;11(6):1282.
4. Samuel TM, et al. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):11767.
5. Sprenger N, et al. PloS One. 2017;12(2):e0171814.
6. Lefebvre G, et al. Front Nutr. 2020;7:574459
7. Anderson RC et al. Colitis. 2012. DOI: 10.5772/25753.
8. Bauer V et al. Oral Presentation Abstract #60. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Nutrition & Growth. 26-28 August 2021.
9. Steenhout P et al. FASEBJ. 2016;30(Suppl 1):275-277.
10. Bauer V et al. Oral Presentation Abstract #61. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Nutrition & Growth. 26-28 August 2021.
11. Estorninos E et al. JPGN. 2019;58(1):999.
12. Puccio G et al. JPGN. 2017;64(4):624-631.
13. Cho S et al. A positive correlation between breast milk 3’-Sialyllactose and language development during early infancy. 2020. Abstract at the 6th WCPGHAN , June 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark.
14. Berger PK et al. PloS one. 2020;15(2):e0228323.
15. Mantis NJ et al. Mucosal Immunol 2011; 4:603-611.
16. Fox A et al. iScience 2020; 23; 101735